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Groza Costina

Author: Costina Groza, Nephrologist

Cystitis is an infection and inflammation of the bladder lining, which can be of bacterial, viral, or fungal origin. It is characterized by an intense irritative bladder syndrome.
Recurrent cystitis is considered when it reoccurs twice within six months or three times within twelve months.
60-80% of women experience cystitis.
Etiology: Escherichia coli – 45-60%, Enterococcus, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Predisposing factors:
– Anatomical characteristics, such as a short female urethra and its anatomical proximity to the vulvovaginal area.
– Hormonal factors, such as menopause.
– Traumatic factors related to genital function, including sexual contact (honeymoon cystitis), childbirth, chemical injuries to the mucosa, and improper underwear.
– Psychogenic factors, such as stress.
– Radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
Clinical manifestations include:
– Polyuria – frequent urination with small volumes.
– Dysuria – painful or burning urination, which intensifies towards the end of urination.
– Urgency – a strong, sudden urge to urinate.
– Suprapubic pain.
– Terminal hematuria – the presence of blood in the urine at the end of urination.
How to prevent cystitis?
– Urinate after sexual intercourse.
– Urinate frequently, whenever there is an urge.
– Maintain proper fluid intake.
– Maintain proper hygiene and avoid products that can alter local pH.
– Avoid excessive vaginal douching.

If clinical manifestations indicative of cystitis occur, it is important to consult a doctor for accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment to prevent acute and chronic complications.