Head – the shape of the head, with asymmetries, bloody bumps or red spots on the face. They are related to the birth trauma, when passing through the pelvic tunnel. These imperfections disappear by 90%. Anterior fontanel – an essential indication of general bone development, complete closure by 18 months.
Eyes – eye color is blue at birth in almost all children. It changes and becomes definitive around the age of 6 months. Cross-gazing (strabismus) is normal until 3-4 months, due to the immaturity of the muscles that coordinate the movements of the globe ocular.
Edema of the eyelids – appears due to the pressure exerted on the head at birth, disappears quickly. Beware of a possible eye infection, which leads to the persistence of edema and must be treated accordingly.
The skin and its peculiarities – The transition from the liquid environment to the dry environment causes all kinds of reactions on the skin: from red spots, spread all over the body , scaling over large areas, up to extensive eruptions, without sign of disease. It’s not allergies!
Genital organs – They appear larger and more swollen in both sexes. Little girls may have vaginal discharge, sometimes bloody. They are transient and have a maternal hormonal cause. In boys, the testicles are not always descended into the scrotum. The scrotum may be large and swollen. Phimosis is almost the rule. Do not worry, as long as the urinary stream is continuous and does not associate with other malformations or local hernias.
Mouth – The mucous membrane of the tongue sometimes appears whitish or laden with secretions. Often there is precipitated, regurgitated, unswallowed milk. During this period the mouth is not cleaned! With nothing! Saliva, and thus insufficiently matured, serves for immune protection at the entrance gate and helps, through its enzymes, to digest milk. Do not remove it through excessive hygiene!
Navel – mummifies and falls off in 10-14 days. It does not heal; it is not treated with anything, because it heals itself, by drying. It is dangerous when it bleeds profusely, becomes red or infected.
Stool and urine – The newborn may have up to 5 stools/day, sticky or watery, greenish, with mucus, etc. It’s normal. The urine may be dark in color but should not stain the diaper or have a pungent/peculiar odor.
During this delicate period of adaptation, everything is „emergency”! Any change that worries you, any change, even subtle, in behavior (complete refusal of food, unnatural crying for a long time, general state changed by restlessness or drowsiness, changes in the appearance and number of urinations and stools, prolonged jaundice, etc.) quickly, call a medical specialist.