Sleep disorders are becoming an increasingly common health problem among the population. This is due to the unhealthy lifestyle we all lead nowadays: we go to bed late and sleep little because we spend our evenings and late nights in front of the TV, computer, or phone, preferring to watch news, movies, or other shows instead of sleeping; we are exposed to excessive psychoemotional and cognitive stress; we overeat and eat improperly, causing many people to suffer from obesity, and finally, we engage in very little physical activity. All these factors negatively influence sleep and trigger a range of sleep disorders, which can be classified into the following groups:
1. Insomnia (when a person has difficulty falling asleep, experiences shallow sleep, or wakes up very early and cannot fall back asleep).
2. Sleep-related breathing disorders (snoring, sleep apnea syndrome – individuals experience choking, shortness of breath during sleep, dry mouth during sleep, frequent urination at night, waking up tired in the morning, sometimes with headaches and increased blood pressure, and can be excessively sleepy during the day).
3. Parasomnias (sleepwalking – a person walks or engages in various bizarre behaviors during sleep, sleep talking – a person talks in their sleep, REM sleep behavior disorder – a person acts out their dreams, such as hitting or shouting).
4. Various disorders characterized by movements during sleep (periodic limb movement disorder – a person creates the impression of playing football in their sleep, regularly moving one or both legs during sleep).
5. Central hypersomnias (a person is constantly sleepy and falls asleep in inappropriate conditions – at work, while driving, during conversations).
6. Circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders (when a person does not have a consistent sleep-wake schedule or does not get enough sleep, resulting in fatigue, malaise, decreased physical and intellectual capabilities that negatively affect their daily life).
For the diagnosis of sleep disorders, sometimes an interview is sufficient, while other times instrumental diagnosis with various medical devices is necessary. Some of these conditions can be resolved by correcting lifestyle habits, while others require the intervention of a specialist doctor and specific treatments.