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We decipher the blood count!

We decipher the blood count!

Fosa Olga

Hemoleukogram or general blood analysis is probably the most common analysis collected since childhood. It provides information about the work of the bone marrow as well as other organ systems. It is an investigation that can be collected regardless of the time or food.

The following parameters can be measured in AGS: the number of erythrocytes and their characteristics, hemoglobin and hematocrit (blood viscosity), the number and formula of leukocytes and the number of platelets.

Erythrocytes or red blood cells are those cells that transport hemoglobin and oxygenate the tissues, respectively, if erythrocytes decrease, hemoglobin decreases and anemia occurs, in case of their increase, blood viscosity increases, and erythrocytosis. In smokers, the hemoglobin concentration and the hematocrit are higher, to compensate for the decrease in oxygen transport capacity.

Thrombocytes are small cells that aim to prevent hemorrhage, having a major role in hemostasis. A low number of platelets represents a risk of hemorrhage and can occur in various pathologies (hepatic, rheumatic, oncological, etc.), and is called thrombocytopenia. An increased number of platelets or thrombocytosis occurs in vascular thrombosis, e.g.: leukemias, lymphomas, anemias , after removal of the spleen.

Leukocytes are the cells that ensure the body’s immunity. Several types are distinguished: granulocytes (neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils) and agranulocytes (lymphocytes, monocytes), each of them has specific functions.

In the case of viral or bacterial infections, the number of leukocytes will increase, this process is called leukocytosis. Also, leukocytosis occurs in tumor processes of hematological origin. Leukopenia, or a low number of leukocytes, occurs in some types of anemia, or infiltrative diseases of the bone marrow. The leukocyte formula has clinical significance only correlated with the total number of leukocytes.

Erythrocyte sedimentation rate or ESR helps determine increased inflammatory activity in the body. It is not specific for a particular disease, but combined with other examinations it is useful in establishing a diagnosis.